Add a column with a default value to an existing table in SQL Server

Mathias Source

How can a column with a default value be added to an existing table in SQL Server 2000 / SQL Server 2005?

sqlsql-serversql-server-2005sql-server-2000

Answers

answered 10 years ago Benjamin Autin #1

ALTER TABLE ADD ColumnName {Column_Type} Constraint

The MSDN article ALTER TABLE (Transact-SQL) has all of the alter table syntax.

answered 10 years ago dbugger #2

ALTER TABLE Protocols
ADD ProtocolTypeID int NOT NULL DEFAULT(1)
GO

The inclusion of the DEFAULT fills the column in existing rows with the default value, so the NOT NULL constraint is not violated.

answered 10 years ago James Boother #3

ALTER TABLE {TABLENAME} 
ADD {COLUMNNAME} {TYPE} {NULL|NOT NULL} 
CONSTRAINT {CONSTRAINT_NAME} DEFAULT {DEFAULT_VALUE}
WITH VALUES

answered 10 years ago ddc0660 #4

ALTER TABLE <table name> 
ADD <new column name> <data type> NOT NULL
GO
ALTER TABLE <table name> 
ADD CONSTRAINT <constraint name> DEFAULT <default value> FOR <new column name>
GO

answered 10 years ago jalbert #5

Beware when the column you are adding has a NOT NULL constraint, yet does not have a DEFAULT constraint (value). The ALTER TABLE statement will fail in that case if the table has any rows in it. The solution is to either remove the NOT NULL constraint from the new column, or provide a DEFAULT constraint for it.

answered 8 years ago JerryOL #6

Use:

-- Add a column with a default DateTime  
-- to capture when each record is added.

ALTER TABLE myTableName  
ADD RecordAddedDate smalldatetime NULL DEFAULT(GetDate())  
GO 

answered 7 years ago phunk_munkie #7

When adding a nullable column, WITH VALUES will ensure that the specific DEFAULT value is applied to existing rows:

ALTER TABLE table
ADD column BIT     -- Demonstration with NULL-able column added
CONSTRAINT Constraint_name DEFAULT 0 WITH VALUES

answered 7 years ago gngolakia #8

You can do the thing with T-SQL in the following way.

 ALTER TABLE {TABLENAME}
 ADD {COLUMNNAME} {TYPE} {NULL|NOT NULL}
 CONSTRAINT {CONSTRAINT_NAME} DEFAULT {DEFAULT_VALUE}

As well as you can use SQL Server Management Studio also by right clicking table in the Design menu, setting the default value to table.

And furthermore, if you want to add the same column (if it does not exists) to all tables in database, then use:

 USE AdventureWorks;
 EXEC sp_msforeachtable
'PRINT ''ALTER TABLE ? ADD Date_Created DATETIME DEFAULT GETDATE();''' ;

answered 7 years ago Jack #9

In SQL Server 2008-R2, I go to the design mode - in a test database - and add my two columns using the designer and made the settings with the GUI, and then the infamous Right-Click gives the option "Generate Change Script"!

Bang up pops a little window with, you guessed it, the properly formatted guaranteed-to-work change script. Hit the easy button.

answered 6 years ago giá vàng #10

Use:

ALTER TABLE {TABLENAME} 
ADD {COLUMNNAME} {TYPE} {NULL|NOT NULL} 
CONSTRAINT {CONSTRAINT_NAME} DEFAULT {DEFAULT_VALUE}

Reference: ALTER TABLE (Transact-SQL) (MSDN)

answered 6 years ago adeel41 #11

The most basic version with two lines only

ALTER TABLE MyTable
ADD MyNewColumn INT NOT NULL DEFAULT 0

answered 6 years ago Christo #12

Alternatively, you can add a default without having to explicitly name the constraint:

ALTER TABLE [schema].[tablename] ADD  DEFAULT ((0)) FOR [columnname]

If you have an issue with existing default constraints when creating this constraint then they can be removed by:

alter table [schema].[tablename] drop constraint [constraintname]

answered 6 years ago Evan V #13

ALTER TABLE MYTABLE ADD MYNEWCOLUMN VARCHAR(200) DEFAULT 'SNUGGLES'

answered 4 years ago andy #14

Example:

ALTER TABLE [Employees] ADD Seniority int not null default 0 GO

answered 4 years ago Catto #15

To add a column to an existing database table with a default value, we can use:

ALTER TABLE [dbo.table_name]
    ADD [Column_Name] BIT NOT NULL
Default ( 0 )

Here is another way to add a column to an existing database table with a default value.

A much more thorough SQL script to add a column with a default value is below including checking if the column exists before adding it also checkin the constraint and dropping it if there is one. This script also names the constraint so we can have a nice naming convention (I like DF_) and if not SQL will give us a constraint with a name which has a randomly generated number; so it's nice to be able to name the constraint too.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Drop COLUMN
-- Name of Column: Column_EmployeeName
-- Name of Table: table_Emplyee
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
IF EXISTS (
            SELECT 1
            FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS
            WHERE TABLE_NAME = 'table_Emplyee'
              AND COLUMN_NAME = 'Column_EmployeeName'
           )
    BEGIN

        IF EXISTS ( SELECT 1
                    FROM sys.default_constraints
                    WHERE object_id = OBJECT_ID('[dbo].[DF_table_Emplyee_Column_EmployeeName]')
                      AND parent_object_id = OBJECT_ID('[dbo].[table_Emplyee]')
                  )
            BEGIN
                ------  DROP Contraint

                ALTER TABLE [dbo].[table_Emplyee] DROP CONSTRAINT [DF_table_Emplyee_Column_EmployeeName]
            PRINT '[DF_table_Emplyee_Column_EmployeeName] was dropped'
            END
     --    -----   DROP Column   -----------------------------------------------------------------
        ALTER TABLE [dbo].table_Emplyee
            DROP COLUMN Column_EmployeeName
        PRINT 'Column Column_EmployeeName in images table was dropped'
    END

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- ADD  COLUMN Column_EmployeeName IN table_Emplyee table
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
IF NOT EXISTS (
                SELECT 1
                FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS
                WHERE TABLE_NAME = 'table_Emplyee'
                  AND COLUMN_NAME = 'Column_EmployeeName'
               )
    BEGIN
    ----- ADD Column & Contraint
        ALTER TABLE dbo.table_Emplyee
            ADD Column_EmployeeName BIT   NOT NULL
            CONSTRAINT [DF_table_Emplyee_Column_EmployeeName]  DEFAULT (0)
        PRINT 'Column [DF_table_Emplyee_Column_EmployeeName] in table_Emplyee table was Added'
        PRINT 'Contraint [DF_table_Emplyee_Column_EmployeeName] was Added'
     END

GO

These are two ways to add a column to an existing database table with a default value.

answered 4 years ago Jakir Hossain #16

Try this

ALTER TABLE Product
ADD ProductID INT NOT NULL DEFAULT(1)
GO

answered 4 years ago Gabriel L. #17

If you want to add multiple columns you can do it this way for example:

ALTER TABLE YourTable
    ADD Column1 INT NOT NULL DEFAULT 0,
        Column2 INT NOT NULL DEFAULT 1,
        Column3 VARCHAR(50) DEFAULT 'Hello'
GO

answered 4 years ago Mohit Tamrakar #18

Example:

ALTER TABLE tes 
ADD ssd  NUMBER   DEFAULT '0';

answered 3 years ago Naveen Desosha #19

SQL Server + Alter Table + Add Column + Default Value uniqueidentifier

ALTER TABLE Product 
ADD ReferenceID uniqueidentifier not null 
default (cast(cast(0 as binary) as uniqueidentifier))

answered 3 years ago Chanukya #20

SQL Server + Alter Table + Add Column + Default Value uniqueidentifier...

ALTER TABLE [TABLENAME] ADD MyNewColumn INT not null default 0 GO

answered 3 years ago Tony L. #21

This can also be done in the SSMS GUI. I show a default date below but the default value can be whatever, of course.

  1. Put your table in design view (Right click on the table in object explorer->Design)
  2. Add a column to the table (or click on the column you want to update if it already exists)
  3. In Column Properties below, enter (getdate()) or abc or 0 or whatever value you want in Default Value or Binding field as pictured below:

enter image description here

answered 3 years ago Chirag Thakar #22

Add a new column to a table:

ALTER TABLE [table]
ADD Column1 Datatype

For example,

ALTER TABLE [test]
ADD ID Int

If the user wants to make it auto incremented then:

ALTER TABLE [test]
ADD ID Int IDENTITY(1,1) NOT NULL

answered 2 years ago Jeevan Gharti #23

IF NOT EXISTS (
    SELECT * FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS
    WHERE TABLE_NAME ='TABLENAME' AND COLUMN_NAME = 'COLUMNNAME'
)
BEGIN
    ALTER TABLE TABLENAME ADD COLUMNNAME Nvarchar(MAX) Not Null default
END

answered 2 years ago usefulBee #24

If the default is Null, then:

  1. In SQL Server, open the tree of the targeted table
  2. Right click "Columns" ==> New Column
  3. Type the column Name, Select Type, and Check the Allow Nulls Checkbox
  4. From the Menu Bar, click Save

Done!

answered 2 years ago Sandeep Kumar #25

ALTER TABLE tbl_table ADD int_column int NOT NULL DEFAULT(0)

From this query you can add a column of datatype integer with default value 0.

answered 2 years ago Mohit Dagar #26

This can be done by the below code.

CREATE TABLE TestTable
    (FirstCol INT NOT NULL)
    GO
    ------------------------------
    -- Option 1
    ------------------------------
    -- Adding New Column
    ALTER TABLE TestTable
    ADD SecondCol INT
    GO
    -- Updating it with Default
    UPDATE TestTable
    SET SecondCol = 0
    GO
    -- Alter
    ALTER TABLE TestTable
    ALTER COLUMN SecondCol INT NOT NULL
    GO

answered 2 years ago Laxmi #27

First create a table with name student:

CREATE TABLE STUDENT (STUDENT_ID INT NOT NULL)

Add one column to it:

ALTER TABLE STUDENT 
ADD STUDENT_NAME INT NOT NULL DEFAULT(0)

SELECT * 
FROM STUDENT

The table is created and a column is added to an existing table with a default value.

Image 1

answered 1 year ago gdmanandamohon #28

Well, I now have some modification to my previous answer. I have noticed that none of the answers mentioned IF NOT EXISTS. So I am going to provide a new solution of it as I have faced some problems altering the table.

IF NOT EXISTS (SELECT * FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.columns WHERE table_name = 'TaskSheet' AND column_name = 'IsBilledToClient')
BEGIN
ALTER TABLE dbo.TaskSheet ADD
 IsBilledToClient bit NOT NULL DEFAULT ((1))
END
GO

Here TaskSheet is the particular table name and IsBilledToClient is the new column which you are going to insert and 1 the default value. That means in the new column what will be the value of the existing rows, therefore one will be set automatically there. However, you can change as you wish with the respect of the column type like I have used BIT, so I put in default value 1.

I suggest the above system, because I have faced a problem. So what is the problem? The problem is, if the IsBilledToClient column does exists in the table table then if you execute only the portion of the code given below you will see an error in the SQL server Query builder. But if it does not exist then for the first time there will be no error when executing.

ALTER TABLE {TABLENAME}
ADD {COLUMNNAME} {TYPE} {NULL|NOT NULL}
CONSTRAINT {CONSTRAINT_NAME} DEFAULT {DEFAULT_VALUE}
[WITH VALUES]

answered 1 year ago Arun D #29

You can use this query:

ALTER TABLE tableName ADD ColumnName datatype DEFAULT DefaultValue;

answered 1 year ago Ste Bov #30

This has a lot of answers, but I feel the need to add this extended method. This seems a lot longer, but it is extremely useful if you're adding a NOT NULL field to a table with millions of rows in an active database.

ALTER TABLE {schemaName}.{tableName}
    ADD {columnName} {datatype} NULL
    CONSTRAINT {constraintName} DEFAULT {DefaultValue}

UPDATE {schemaName}.{tableName}
    SET {columnName} = {DefaultValue}
    WHERE {columName} IS NULL

ALTER TABLE {schemaName}.{tableName}
    ALTER COLUMN {columnName} {datatype} NOT NULL

What this will do is add the column as a nullable field and with the default value, update all fields to the default value (or you can assign more meaningful values), and finally it will change the column to be NOT NULL.

The reason for this is if you update a large scale table and add a new not null field it has to write to every single row and hereby will lock out the entire table as it adds the column and then writes all the values.

This method will add the nullable column which operates a lot faster by itself, then fills the data before setting the not null status.

I've found that doing the entire thing in one statement will lock out one of our more active tables for 4-8 minutes and quite often I have killed the process. This method each part usually takes only a few seconds and causes minimal locking.

Additionally, if you have a table in the area of billions of rows it may be worth batching the update like so:

WHILE 1=1
BEGIN
    UPDATE TOP (1000000) {schemaName}.{tableName}
        SET {columnName} = {DefaultValue}
        WHERE {columName} IS NULL

    IF @@ROWCOUNT < 1000000
        BREAK;
END

answered 1 year ago Mohamad Shahrestani #31

Right click on the table, click under the last column name, and enter the column information.

Then add a default value or binding, something like '1' for string or 1 for int.

answered 9 months ago raju chowrsiya #32

step-1. FIRST YOU HAVE TO ALTER TABLE WITH ADD a FIELD

alter table table_name add field field_name data_type

step-2 CREATE DEFAULT

USE data_base_name;
GO
CREATE DEFAULT default_name AS 'default_value';

step-3 THEN YOU HAVE TO EXECUTE THIS PROCEDURE

exec sp_bindefault 'default_name' , 'schema_name.table_name.field_name'

example -

USE master;
GO
EXEC sp_bindefault 'today', 'HumanResources.Employee.HireDate';

answered 5 months ago Akhil Singh #33

This is for Sql Server

ALTER TABLE TableName
        ADD ColumnName (type) ->NULL OR NOT NULL
    DEFAULT (default value)
       WITH VALUES
Example

ALTER TABLE Activities
        ADD status int NOT NULL DEFAULT (0)
       WITH VALUES
if want to add constraints then ->

ALTER TABLE Table_1
        ADD row3 int NOT NULL
 CONSTRAINT CONSTRAINT_NAME DEFAULT (0)
       WITH VALUES

answered 4 months ago wild coder #34

--Adding Value with Default Value
ALTER TABLE TestTable
ADD ThirdCol INT NOT NULL DEFAULT(0)
GO

answered 4 months ago Krishan Dutt Sharma #35

ALTER TABLE Table1 ADD Col3 INT NOT NULL DEFAULT(0)

answered 2 months ago Erfan Mohammadi #36

--Adding New Column with Default Value
ALTER TABLE TABLENAME 
ADD COLUMNNAME DATATYPE NULL|NOT NULL DEFAULT (DEFAULT_VALUE)

OR

--Adding CONSTRAINT And Set Default Value on Column
ALTER TABLE TABLENAME ADD  CONSTRAINT [CONSTRAINT_Name]  DEFAULT 
(DEFAULT_VALUE) FOR [COLUMNNAME]

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